This includes one or two spike lets bisexual flowers. [4][5] One species is grown for grain, while many others are used as fodder plants, either cultivated in warm climates worldwide or naturalized in pasture lands. For floral designs, the beauty of broom corn lies in the large-flowered, tufted, fruiting heads. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) is a warm-season (C 4 photosynthetic pathway), short-day annual grass. Its versatile seed heads, which range from white to red and brown, are handsome in mixed bouquets or on their own. The members are cosmopolitan in distribution. Sorghum's versatility gives it the flexibility to reach beyond traditional marketplaces, further enhancing producer profitability. Native: indigenous. Sorghum is especially valued in hot and arid regions for its resistance to drought and heat. Cherednichenko of russian academy of sciences. larvae/head = (C x R) ÷ (V x N x 2.4) where C = cost of control ($/ha) R = row spacing (cm) V = value of crop ($/tonne) N = number of heads/metre of row 2.4 = weight of sorghum (grams) lost per larva S. bicolor is an important food crop in Africa, Central America, and South Asia, and is the fifth-most important cereal crop grown in the world. The characteristic strong flavour can be reduced by processing. Sorghum grain is a staple human food in Africa and Asia, but is grown almost solely as a livestock feed in the western It grows best under relatively high temperatures and under sunny conditions. A seed is made up of seed coat and an embryo. Sorghum can better tolerate short periods of water logging compared with maize. Corn is popular for use in breakfast foods.…. The palea (also known as superior palea), often with two longitudinal ridges (keels or nerves), stands between the lemma and the rachilla. It is one of the largest among the angiospermic families. fertilizer dollars in sorghum is from N and P. • Sulfur becoming an issue on some soils. Sorghum is used to make both leavened and unleavened bread. Soils with a Seventeen of the 25 species are native to Australia, with the range of some … of the millet and sorghum families was first developed in the northern savanna. Queensland Government", "Sorghum, targeted by tariffs, is a U.S. crop China started buying only five years ago", FAO Report (1995) "Sorghum and millets in human nutrition", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sorghum&oldid=991151970, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 15:25. If five free sepals are present the whorl is represented by K5 and if united it is represented by K (5). ... Penisetum typhoideum Sorghum vulgare . Sorghum is a cereal grain that grows tall like corn, and it is used for a lot more than just sweetening. In Sahelian Africa, it is primarily used in couscous. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae, which includes about 25 species.Some of these species have grown as cereals for human consumption and some in pastures for animals. One species, Sorghum bicolor, was originally domesticated in Africa and has since spread throughout the globe. forage grass seeds. Flower structure of sorghum. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Just as the soybean was used for many centuries in Asia before its introduction into the Western world, so sorghum was a major crop in Africa.... Just as the soybean was used for many centuries in Asia before its introduction into the Western world, so sorghum was a major crop in Africa. Broom corn’s name comes from the fact that the stiff branches are indeed made into making brooms. Sorghum is also used for new and expanding markets such as building material, fencing, floral arrangements, pet food, brooms and more. When stressed by drought or heat, plants can also contain toxic levels of cyanide and nitrates at later stages in growth. The plants represent all the 3 ecological types as hydrophytes, xerophytes and mesophytes. Sorghum bicolor (L). Floral formula: Distribution of Poaceae: The family is commonly known as grass family. Fodders: Most of the fodders of the animals also belong to this family. Sorghum Nutrition. Within most developing countries, the sorghum crop rarely reaches the market. Sorghum is an excellent substitute for wheat, rye and barley for those who cannot tolerate gluten. Stalks and leaves are coated with a white wax, and the pith, or central portion, of the stalks of certain varieties is juicy and sweet. Corrections? This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/plant/sorghum-grain, The Whole Grains Council - Sorghum June Grain of the Month, Purdue University - Center for New Crops and Plant Products - Sorghum, sorghum - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), sorghum - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Sorghum is more tolerant of alkaline salts than other grain crops and can therefore be successfully cultivated on soils with a pH (KCl) between 5.5 and 8.5. Sorghum is indeed a gluten free grain, safe for consumption for those with sensitivities [5]. Sorghum flour does not contain proteins that produce viscoelastic properties similar to that of gluten found in wheat; therefore, acceptable yeast-leavened products from 100% sorghum flour are difficult to obtain. Province of the eastern cape education national senior certificate grade 11 november 2012 agricultural sciences p2 marks. The grain is also used in making edible oil, starch, dextrose (a sugar), paste, and alcoholic beverages. Stalks and leaves are coated with a white wax, and the pith, or central portion, of the stalks of certain varieties is juicy and sweet. First and foremost, in the United States, sorghum is used as livestock feed and turned into ethanol. It is high in carbohydrates, with 10 percent protein and 3.4 percent fat, and contains calcium and small amounts of iron, vitamin B1, and niacin. at this time, so growers with irrigation are advised to ensure there is sufficient water for panicle exer-tion, flowering and seed set. technicum). 22 Page 600 高粱属 gao liang shu, "Ecogeographical distribution of wild, weedy and cultivated Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench in Kenya: implications for conservation and crop-to-wild gene flow", "Sorghum- and millet-legume cropping systems", "Flavonoids' presence in sorghum roots may lead to frost-resistant crop", "Move over, quinoa: sorghum is the new 'wonder grain, "Cyanide (prussic acid) and nitrate in sorghum crops Primary industries and fisheries. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench] is an indigenous crop to Africa, and though commercial needs and uses may change over time, sorghum will remain a basic staple food for many rural communities. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. Sorghum Flower Arrangements Sorghum isn't just a grain or sugar crop. Floral formula and floral diagram of wheat. Sorghum is an ancient cereal grain belonging to the grass family Poaceae. Millet farming became particularly successful in the tropics because, unlike wheat and barley, it did not require the long daylight hours of summer that occur in the temperate climes. Broomcorn used for making brooms. Floral formula K 3 − 4 {\displaystyle \mathrm {K} ^{3-4}} C 3 − 4 {\displaystyle \mathrm {C} ^{3-4}} or C 0 {\displaystyle \mathrm {C} ^{0}} A 2 − 8 {\displaystyle \mathrm {A} ^{2-8}} G ( 2 − 4 ) ¯ {\displaystyle \mathrm {G} ^{\overline {(2-4)}}} 3-4 free sepals, 3-4 free petals (or absent), 2-8 stamens, inferior ovary with 2-4 fused carpels The seeds vary widely among different types in colour, shape, and size, but they are smaller than those of wheat. The latter is especially true in the more drought prone areas of South Africa where this hardy crop provides better household food security than maize. Non-native: introduced (intentionally or unintentionally); has become naturalized. The floral parts borne in the axil of lemma. Omissions? The seed is a caryopsis of about 4 mm (Hadbaoui Zineb, 2007) [10]. The trade in sorghum is small compared with the major grains such as wheat, maize, barley and rice. The plant likely originated in Africa, where it is a major food crop, and has numerous varieties, including grain sorghums, used for food; grass sorghums, grown for hay and fodder; and broomcorn, used in making brooms and brushes. Sweet sorghums, or sorgos, are grown mainly in the United States and southern Africa for forage and for syrup manufacture and are sometimes used in the production of ethyl alcohol for biofuel. floral formula: actinomorphic, -3, 3- (tepals), 9 stamens, 3 fused carpels (superior ovary) umbel inflorescence (branching from one main axis) really large, thick, woody taproot (lets you know that it's perennial) stem nodes not swollen, ochre (fused stipules) not present Floral formula = Embryonal axis Cotyledons (Plumule + Radicle) (Store food) The Seed The ovules after fertilization develop into the seeds. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The one that is used most often as an everlasting is called broom corn. Sorghum is a strong grass and usually grows to a height of 0.6 to 2.4 metres (2 to 8 feet), sometimes reaching as high as 4.6 metres (15 feet). Tropical cereals spread from Central Africa not…, …may also be applied to sorghum, wheat, and rice. The main importers of sorghum are Japan, Mexico, the former USSR (CIS) and Venezuela. 2½ hours this question paper consists of 14 pages. Economic Importance. The development of the panicle, its floral struc- Sorghum is of a lower feed quality than corn (maize). Sorghum for Baking Products. One species, Sorghum bicolor, was originally domesticated in Africa and has since spread throughout the globe. It's a popular crop to grow within the drier regions of the States because it is drought resistant. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is an important grain, forage, and bioenergy crop grown throughout the world. Discover more about sorghum… For the principal modern crop species, see, "Sorgo" redirects here. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The stalks are used as fodder and building materials. The development and use of sorghum for use in animal agriculture continues. The leaves are about 5 cm (2 inches) broad and 76 cm (2.5 feet) long. Grain sorghum at the heading stage. 1 cup (113g) sorghum flour; 1 3/4 cups (276g) King Arthur Gluten-Free All-Purpose Flour 1/4 cup (28g) whole flax meal; 2 teaspoons instant yeast; 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder; 1 teaspoon salt; 1 teaspoon xanthan gum; 1 cup (227g) room-temperature milk (about 70°F) It has importance both for man and animals. ... Botany 109845 What Is The Floral Formula Of Graminae Family. Gliricidia sepium is native to the seasonally dry Pacific coast of Central America and is now widespread throughout the tropics within 6°S and 19°N of the equator.It grows well from sea level to an altitude of 1600 m, in areas where the mean temperature ranges from 20°C to 29°C, and annual rainfall is between 900 mm and 1500 mm, with a five-month dry period. Sorghum as a crop originated as far back as 3,000 years ago. P. Pontieri, L. Del Giudice, in Encyclopedia of Food and Health, 2016. [6] Sorghum is in the subfamily Panicoideae and the tribe Andropogoneae (the tribe of big bluestem and sugarcane). Sorghum usually grows poorly on sandy soils, except where a heavy textured sub-soil is present. Sorghum is gaining popularity in the U.S. primarily as a result of its gluten-free property and because it is celiac safe. Poaceae or Gramineae: Grass Family Characteristics, Floral formula, Floral Diagram And Economic Importance Syed Muhmmad Muzammil Gilani. Sorghum is a widely adaptable species that is cultivated as an annual cereal and forage crop in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. Floral diagram with floral formula (Oryza sativa or rice): Some important plants of the family: Oryza sativa (Rice) Triticum aestivum (wheat) Zea mays (maize) Sorghum vulgare (broom corn) Eleusine coracan (millet) Sachharum officinarum (sugarcane) Hordeum vulgare (barley) Cymbopogan citramus (lemon grass) [12][13], Global demand for sorghum increased dramatically between 2013 and 2015 when China began purchasing US sorghum crops to use as livestock feed as a substitute for domestically grown corn. Other gluten free gains/flours include amaranth, buckwheat, chia, corn, potato starch, quinoa, rice, millet and teff. • N, P, Zn, (and K) have reliable soil tests to measure nutrient availability and predict fertilizer needs. Also covers those considered historical (not seen in 20 years Sorghum is a strong grass and usually grows to a height of 0.6 to 2.4 metres (2 to 8 feet), sometimes reaching as high as 4.6 metres (15 feet). March 26, 2020 Angiosperm families ... Hordeum vulgare (Barley),Sorghum vulgare / Sorghum bicolor (Broom-corn), Pennisetum typhoideum / Pennisetum glaucum (Pearl millet). It is grown for home consumption unless there is a bumper crop, or if cash is needed. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The advantages of sorghum in the production of poultry: Sorghum can be used as an essential ingredient in poultry feed portion. The selection … If there are more than one whorl of an organ, they are represented by the some of their representative parts. Updates? The critical helicoverpa larvae number can be calculated with the following formula: No. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Most varieties are drought- and heat-tolerant, and nitrogen-efficient,[9] and are especially important in arid regions, where the grain is one of the staples for poor and rural people. Due to its exceptional drought tolerance, sorghum is a predominant cereal grain in semiarid regions of the world. Sorghum, with large juicy stems containing as much as 10% sucrose, used in manufacture of syrup; sugar can be manufactured from sorghum. The pressence of two nerves in palea makes some people to conclude that it is formed by the fusion of two bracteoles. These varieties form important components of forage in many tropical regions. Sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor), also called great millet, Indian millet, milo, durra, orshallu, cereal grain plant of the grass family (Poaceae) and its edible starchy seeds. Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae, which includes about 25 species. In India sorghum is known as jowar, cholam, or jonna, in West Africa as Guinea corn, and in China as kaoliang. This family has greater importance than all other families of the flowering plants. The tiny flowers are produced in panicles that range from loose to dense; each flower cluster bears 800–3,000 kernels. Seventeen of the 25 species are native to Australia,[2][3] with the range of some extending to Africa, Asia, Mesoamerica, and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. For the Ragusan family, see, "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew", "Sorghum laxiflorum and S. macrospermum, the Australian native species most closely related to the cultivated S. bicolor based on ITS1 and ndhF sequence analysis of 28 Sorghum species", "Flora of China Vol. [10][11], In the early stages of the plants' growth, some species of sorghum can contain levels of hydrogen cyanide, hordenine, and nitrates which are lethal to grazing animals. Having a batch ready to go in the fridge is like money in the bank -- learn how to get the texture just right, then try our Sorghum Salad with Carrots and Dandelion Greens. Sorghum is considered headed (Figure 5) when panicles are visible on 50 percent of the plants in the field. Sorghum might just be the next it grain, thanks to its pleasing chew and subtly sweet flavor. This is a particular variety of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor var. One species, Sorghum bicolor,[7] native to Africa with many cultivated forms now,[8] is an important crop worldwide, used for food (as grain and in sorghum syrup or "sorghum molasses"), animal fodder, the production of alcoholic beverages, and biofuels. For human consumption, the gluten-free grain is usually ground into a meal that is made into porridge, flatbreads, and cakes. Sorghum is approximately 10% protein, and is a rich source of the B-group vitamins. Figure 5. It consists of 620 genera and 6,000 species. If a flower has three whorls of five stamens each, then the androecium is represented by A5+5+5. • Fe and zinc are the micronutrient most likely to be deficient in Kansas for sorghum. County documented: documented to exist in the county by evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). Not only is sorghum well suited to the inexpensive formula of feed portion, but it is readily available for feed. is a plant of 1 to 3 meters high, solid cylindrical rod with a terminal inflorescence compact panicle. [14], This article is about the plant genus. China purchased around $1 billion worth of American sorghum per year until April 2018 when China imposed retaliatory duties on American sorghum as part of the trade war between the two countries. 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